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安装 https 证书的一些过程

下载证书

我使用的阿里云免费个人版,有效期一年。

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~/Downloads ❯❯❯ cd 3713633_www.yangtao.site_nginx/
~/D/3713633_www.yangtao.site_nginx ❯❯❯ ls
3713633_www.yangtao.site.key 3713633_www.yangtao.site.pem
~/D/3713633_www.yangtao.site_nginx ❯❯❯
scp 3713633_www.yangtao.site.key 3713633_www.yangtao.site.pem root@47.101.33.81:/usr/local/nginx/cert/
root@47.101.33.81's password:
Permission denied, please try again.
root@47.101.33.81's password:
3713633_www.yangtao.site.key 100% 1675 88.9KB/s 00:00
3713633_www.yangtao.site.pem 100% 3675 274.2KB/s 00:00
~/D/3713633_www.yangtao.site_nginx ❯❯❯
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root@istaotao:/usr/local/nginx/cert# ls
3713633_www.yangtao.site.key 3713633_www.yangtao.site.pem

修改配置

按照下文中注释内容修改 nginx.conf 文件:

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server {
listen 443 ssl; #SSL协议访问端口号为443。此处如未添加ssl,可能会造成Nginx无法启动。
server_name localhost; #将localhost修改为您证书绑定的域名,例如:www.example.com。
root html;
index index.html index.htm;
ssl_certificate cert/domain name.pem; #将domain name.pem替换成您证书的文件名。
ssl_certificate_key cert/domain name.key; #将domain name.key替换成您证书的密钥文件名。
ssl_session_timeout 5m;
ssl_ciphers ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256:ECDHE:ECDH:AES:HIGH:!NULL:!aNULL:!MD5:!ADH:!RC4; #使用此加密套件。
ssl_protocols TLSv1 TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2; #使用该协议进行配置。
ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;
location / {
root html; #站点目录。
index index.html index.htm;
}
}

升级 HTTP2

修改 nginx 配置,原本 https 的 listen 为:

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listen 443 ssl;

现在在后面加上 http2:

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listen 443 ssl http2;

然后,关闭 Nginx,重启。这时候去看页面,原本的 http1.1 就会变成 http2。

参考资料:怎样把网站升级到http/2

强制 http 跳转

使用 curl 命令:

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~ ❯❯❯ curl baidu.com -v
* Trying 220.181.38.148...
* TCP_NODELAY set
* Connected to baidu.com (220.181.38.148) port 80 (#0)
> GET / HTTP/1.1
> Host: baidu.com
> User-Agent: curl/7.64.1
> Accept: */*
>
< HTTP/1.1 200 OK
< Date: Sat, 04 Apr 2020 16:33:35 GMT
< Server: Apache
< Last-Modified: Tue, 12 Jan 2010 13:48:00 GMT
< ETag: "51-47cf7e6ee8400"
< Accept-Ranges: bytes
< Content-Length: 81
< Cache-Control: max-age=86400
< Expires: Sun, 05 Apr 2020 16:33:35 GMT
< Connection: Keep-Alive
< Content-Type: text/html
<
<html>
<meta http-equiv="refresh" content="0;url=http://www.baidu.com/">
</html>
* Connection #0 to host baidu.com left intact
* Closing connection 0
~ ❯❯❯

可以看到百度很巧妙的利用 meta 的刷新作用,将 baidu.com 跳转到 www.baidu.com
同理, 我们也可以用这个特性来实现 http 向 https 的跳转

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# index.html
<html>
<meta http-equiv="refresh" content="0;url=https://www.yangtao.site/" />
</html>
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server {
listen 80;
server_name yangtao.site;

location / {
root /var/www/html/refresh/;
}
}

测试 yangtao.site

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~ ❯❯❯ curl yangtao.site -v
* Trying 47.101.33.81...
* TCP_NODELAY set
* Connected to yangtao.site (47.101.33.81) port 80 (#0)
> GET / HTTP/1.1
> Host: yangtao.site
> User-Agent: curl/7.64.1
> Accept: */*
>
< HTTP/1.1 200 OK
< Server: nginx/1.14.0 (Ubuntu)
< Date: Sat, 04 Apr 2020 16:34:16 GMT
< Content-Type: text/html
< Content-Length: 91
< Last-Modified: Sat, 04 Apr 2020 16:04:03 GMT
< Connection: keep-alive
< ETag: "5e88aff3-5b"
< Accept-Ranges: bytes
<
<html>
<meta http-equiv="refresh" content="0;url=https://www.yangtao.site/">
</html>
* Connection #0 to host yangtao.site left intact
* Closing connection 0

参考资料

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